PART 1 - ARCHESDuring the last days I spent some time observing various projects in PMC (especially those of ancient style) and I realized that many users did not follow the rules of the
Theory of Proportions.
First of all I premise that this is only a suggestion/advice, everyone is free to build as he/she wants.
I decided to start with
arches, beacause I think it is the most neglected thing in proportions.
According to the theory of proportions, the height of an arch has to be about
widht × 1,6 for the Golden Ratio (or at most × 2) semicircle included.
This ratio was fundamental in Greek and Roman architecture and was also used again during the Renaissance.
The Golden Ratio is indicated with the letter
φ (phi) of the Greek alphabet.
Below is an image (modified by me) explaining the Golden Ratio applied to a Roman Arch (Arco di Traiano a Benevento - taken from "
I monumenti e le opere d'arte della città di Benevento" by Almerico Meomartini, 1889).
PART 2 - INTRODUCTION TO THE FIVE ORDERSThe four basic orders are: the
Doric, the
Ionic and the
Corinthian (from Greece); the
Tuscan (from Italy). The fifth order, the
Composite (of Roman invention) was added for the first time during the Renaissance in the teatrises of architecture based on
Vitruvius' De Architectura.
It is good to differentiate the rules of proportion according to the
Classical Codex and the
Classicist Rule.
CLASSICAL CODEX: greater flexibility in the proportions, the orders respond to a language that attributes to each of them different features.
- Tuscan: bald and solid
- Doric: severe and robust (symbolizes the male body)
- Ionic: elegant (symbolizes the female body)
- Corinthian: refined and pure
- Composite: sumptuous and regal
CLASSICIST RULE: each order responds to standard and not flexible proportions.
These ratios were theorized during the Renaissance from teatrises written by architects, the most influent was "
Regola delli cinque ordini d'architettura (Canon of the five orders of architecture)" by the Italian architect
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, to which the successive architects refer.
Here is a table with the proportions between the diameter of the column (considered
1 unit) and the height of the column for each order (capital and base included)
It is clear that, assuming all orders of the same height,
the diameter decreases from the Tuscan to the Corinthian-Composite.
1) Tuscan,
2) Doric,
3) Ionic,
4) Corinthian,
5) Composite
Then, here is what happens assuming all the columns of the same diameter
PART 3.1: THE TUSCAN ORDERI attach this image with the nomenclature of the main parts of the Ionic order as example. All the parts are in the same position in each order, the decors change:
https://imgur.com/aAhXWqyThe
Tuscan Order (from the Latin
tuscanĭcus, that means Etruscan) was typical in the Etruscan architecture, then arrived in the Roman architecture.
Probably the Tuscan derives from the Greek
Doric Order, which is very similar in his features. During the Italian Renaissance the Tuscan Order replaced the Doric in architecture, beacuse of its Italian origin.
According to Vignola the height of the Tuscan column is obtained
multiplying by 7 the diameter of the column. To get the dimensions of the other parts we give the value of
2 moduli (singular is
modulo) to the diameter, so the height of the column is
14 moduli.
In order to measure correctly the various parts of the order, Vignola used
submultiples of the modulo. For the Tuscan Order
1 modulo = 12 parti (2 mod = 24 parti, 1/2 mod = 6 parti, 1 mod + 3 p = 15 p etc). I will use abbrevations
mod (moduli) and
p (parti).
Of the 14 moduli for the height of the column:
1 mod for the capital,
1 mod for the base,
12 mod for the shaft.
The height of the
entablature is a quarter of the height of the column, then
3,5 mod (14 mod ÷ 4 = 3,5 mod = 42 p), and it is divided in the following parts:
1 mod for the architrave,
1 mod + 2 p for the frieze,
1 mod + 4 p for the cornice.
The
intercolumniation (distance between two columns) must be
4 mod 2/3 (56 p).
PART 3.2 - PORTICOS AND LOGGIAS OF TUSCAN ORDERIf you want to build arcades with the Tuscan Order the proportions will be unchanged,
except the intercolumniation.
There are two alternatives of building porticos and loggias:
Alternative 1 - Column resting on the groundThe column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
3 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 1/4 of its diameter. The pillar is 1 mod wider than the column, therefore
6 p more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
6,5 mod.
The
height of the arch is
13 mod.
Alternative 2 - Column erected on pedestalThe description of the pedestals is in the
part 7.
The column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
4 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 1/4 of its diameter. The pillar is 2 mod wider than the column, therefore
1 mod more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
8 mod 3/4.
The
height of the arch is
17,5 mod.
PART 4.1 - THE DORIC ORDER
Before starting I attach this image with the nomenclature of the main parts of the Ionic order as example. All the parts are in the same position in each order, the decors change:
imgur.com/aAhXWqy
" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">
imgur.com/aAhXWqyThe Doric Order is the most ancient of the Greek architecture, its name comes from the
Dorians who lived in southern Greece.
The Doric characterizes some of the most iconic ancient Greek buildings such as the
Parthenon and the
Temple of Zeus in Olympia. This Order also was used in the most of the temples in Magna Graecia (southern Italy).
According to Vignola the height of the Doric column is obtained
multiplying by 8 the diameter of the column. To get the dimensions of the other parts we give the value of
2 moduli (singular is
modulo) to the diameter, so the height of the column is
16 moduli.
In order to measure correctly the various parts of the order, Vignola used
submultiples of the modulo. For the Doric Order
1 modulo = 12 parti (2 mod = 24 parti, 1/2 mod = 6 parti, 1 mod + 3 p = 15 p etc). I will use abbrevations
mod (moduli) and
p (parti).
Of the 16 moduli for the height of the column:
1 mod for the capital,
1 mod for the base,
14 mod for the shaft.
The height of the
entablature is a quarter of the height of the column, then
4 mod (16 mod ÷ 4 = 4 mod = 48 p), and it is divided in the following parts:
1 mod for the architrave,
1,5 mod for the frieze,
1,5 mod for the cornice.
The
intercolumniation (distance between two columns) must be
5,5 mod
PART 4.2 - PORTICOS AND LOGGIAS OF DORIC ORDERIf you want to build arcades with the Doric Order the proportions will be unchanged,
except the intercolumniation.
There are two alternatives of building porticos and loggias.
Alternative 1 - Column resting on the groundThe column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
3 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 1/3 of its diameter. The pillar is 1 mod wider than the column, therefore
6 p more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
7 mod.
The
height of the arch is
14 mod.
Alternative 2 - Column erected on pedestalThe description of the pedestals is in the
part 7.The column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
5 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 1/3 of its diameter. The pillar is 3 mod wider than the column, therefore
1,5 mod more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
10.
The
height of the arch is
20 mod.
PART 5.1 - THE IONIC ORDERBefore starting I attach this image with the nomenclature of the main parts of the Ionic order as example. All the parts are in the same position in each order, the decors change:
imgur.com/aAhXWqy
" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">
imgur.com/aAhXWqyThe
Ionic Order is the second of the Greek architecture and represents the effect of the first Eastern influences absorbed by Greek culture, in fact its name derives from Asia Minor (called
Ionia). This order symbolizes the female body, for this reason it was used in temples dedicated to the worship of goddesses, such as the
Temple of Athena Nike and the
Erechtheion (both in Athens).
According to Vignola the height of the Ionic column is obtained
multiplying by 9 the diameter of the column. To get the dimensions of the other parts we give the value of
2 moduli (singular is
modulo) to the diameter, so the height of the column is
18 moduli.
In order to measure correctly the various parts of the order, Vignola used
submultiples of the modulo. For the Ionic Order
1 modulo = 18 parti (2 mod = 36 parti, 1/2 mod = 9 parti, 1 mod + 3 p = 21 p etc). I will use abbrevations
mod (moduli) and
p (parti).
Of the 18 moduli for the height of the column:
2/3 mod (12 p) for the capital,
1 mod for the base,
16 mod 1/3 for the shaft.
The height of the
entablature is a quarter of the height of the column, then
4,5 mod (18 mod ÷ 4 = 4,5 mod = 81 p), and it is divided in the following parts:
1 mod 1/4 for the architrave,
1,5 mod for the frieze,
1 mod 3/4 for the cornice.
The
intercolumniation (distance between two columns) must be
4,5 mod.
PART 5.2 - PORTICOS AND LOGGIAS OF IONIC ORDERIf you want to build arcades with the Ionic Order the proportions will be unchanged,
except the intercolumniation.
There are two alternatives of building porticos and loggias.
Alternative 1 - Column resting on the groundThe column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
3 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 1/3 of its diameter. The pillar is 1 mod wider than the column, therefore
9 p more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
8,5 mod.
The
height of the arch is
17 mod.
Alternative 2 - Column erected on pedestalThe description of the pedestals is in the
part 7.
The column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
4 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 1/3 of its diameter. The pillar is 2 mod wider than the column, therefore
1 mod more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
11.
The
height of the arch is
22 mod.
PART 6.1 - THE CORINTHIAN ORDER AND THE COMPOSITE ORDERBefore starting I attach this image with the nomenclature of the main parts of the Ionic order as example. All the parts are in the same position in each order, the decors change:
imgur.com/aAhXWqy
" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">
imgur.com/aAhXWqyI describe together the Corinthian and the Composite Order because of their same proportions. The differences are in the decorations.
The
Corinthian Order is the third of the Greek architecture, according to Vitruvius it was invented by the architect/sculptor
Callimachus and its name derives from the Greek city of Corinth. Despite the Greek origin, this order was more used by Romans than in Greece, in fact we notice the utilization of the Corinth Order in the facade of the most important Roman temple: the
Pantheon.
The
Composite Order was invented by the Romans and its capital shows the
combination between the Ionic and the Corinthian Order. In addition to the capital, what differs from the Corinthian Order is the less complex entablature. The base and the shaft are the same.
According to Vignola the height of the Corinthian/Composite column is obtained
multiplying by 10 the diameter of the column. To get the dimensions of the other parts we give the value of
2 moduli (singular is
modulo) to the diameter, so the height of the column is
20 moduli.
In order to measure correctly the various parts of the order, Vignola used
submultiples of the modulo. For the Corinthian/Composite Order
1 modulo = 18 parti (2 mod = 36 parti, 1/2 mod = 9 parti, 1 mod + 3 p = 21 p etc). I will use abbrevations
mod (moduli) and
p (parti).
Of the 20 moduli for the height of the column:
2 mod 1/3 for the capital,
1 mod for the base,
16 mod 2/3 for the shaft.
The height of the
entablature is a quarter of the height of the column, then
5 mod (20 mod ÷ 4 = 5 mod = 90 p), and it is divided in the following parts:
1,5 mod for the architrave,
1,5 mod for the frieze,
2 mod for the cornice.
The
intercolumniation (distance between two columns) must be
4 mod 2/3.
PART 6.2 - PORTICOS AND LOGGIAS OF CORINTHIAN AND COMPOSITE ORDERIf you want to build arcades with the Corinthian/Composite Order the proportions will be unchanged,
except the intercolumniation.
There are two alternatives of building porticos and loggias.
Alternative 1 - Column resting on the groundThe column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
3 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 3/4 of its diameter. The pillar is 1 mod wider than the column, therefore
9 p more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
9 mod.
The
height of the arch is
18 mod.
Alternative 2 - Column erected on pedestalThe description of the pedestals is in the
part 7.
The column is
centrally positioned in a pillar (width of
4 mod and depth of
2 mod) from which comes out of
1 mod 3/4 of its diameter. The pillar is 2 mod wider than the column, therefore
1 mod more on each side.
The distance between two pillars is also the
span of the arch that must be
12.
The
height of the arch is
24 mod.
PART 7 - PEDESTALSHaving to reach greater heights, you can increase the height of the column, in this way also the dimensions of the diameter and of the entablature will increase, for this reason Vignola recommends the use of
pedestals to be placed under the base of the column, in order to avoid enormous dimensions.
REMEMBER: in the Tuscan and in the Doric Order 1 mod = 12 p; in the Ionic and in the Corinthian/Composite 1 mod = 18 p
In each order the pedestal is high
one third of the height of the column, therefore:
- in the
Tuscan Order: 14 mod ÷ 3 =
4 mod 2/3- in the
Doric Order: 16 mod ÷ 3 =
5 mod 1/3- in the
Ionic Order: 18 mod ÷ 3 =
6 mod- in the
Corinthian/Composite Order: 20 mod ÷ 3 =
6 mod 2/3
The pedestal is composed by the following parts: the
socle/basement in the bottom, the
dado in the middle part, the
cymatium on the top
Of the 4 mod 2/3 for the
Tuscan pedestal:
5 p for the socle,
3 mod + 9 p for the dado,
1/2 mod for the cymatium.
Of the 5 mod 1/3 for the
Doric pedestal:
10 p for the socle,
4 mod for the dado,
1/2 mod for the cymatium.
Of the 6 mod for the
Ionic pedestal:
1/2 mod for the socle,
5 mod for the dado,
1/2 mod for the cymatium.
Of the 6 mod 2/3 for the
Corinthian/Composite pedestal:
12 p for the socle,
5 mod + 10 p for the dado,
14 p for the cymatium.
PART 8 - OVERLAP OF THE ORDERS
The technique of overlapping Orders was invented by the Romans and was applied in architecture, first in the
Theatre of Marcellus and then in
Colosseum, the latter became immedietly a reference to follow both during the Roman era and during the Renaissance (rediscovery of the Roman architecture).
The
Theatre of Marcellus (13 BC) used to feature a tripartite facade. The lower part and the middle part are composed of arches framed by semicolumns of Doric Order (bottom) and of Ionic Order (Middle). The upper level was probably decorated by Corinthian semicolumns.
It’s obvious that the ascending succession of the Orders follows
chronologically the Greek Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian.
The
Colosseum (72-80 AC) is definitely inspired by the Theatre of Marcellus, from which it differs for the addition of the fourth level, so it has three levels of arches. The arches are decorated from the bottom to the top by the following Orders:
Tuscan, Ionic, Corinthian.
Due to the fact that it is used the chronological order of the various types of semicolumns, the fourth level has only to be decorated with the
Corinthian Order again, because the Composite Order did not exist yet.
At the end of the Middle-Ages the rediscovery of the Roman architecture took place, espacially in the works of the Italian architect
Leon Battista Alberti, who in his
Palazzo Rucellai in Florence (1446-1451) reintroduces for the first time the overlapping of the Orders (Tuscan, Ionic, Corinthian), inspired by the Colosseum.
This technique was even used in the Baroque and in the Neoclassical architecture in this way: the lowest Order can be Tuscan or Doric, in the middle Ionic, at the top Corinthian.
If a building has fewer levels it can be used the matching Tuscan/Doric-Ionic, as in the
Basilica Palladiana in Vicenza (1549-1614). Rarely it can also be used the matching Ionic-Corinthian as in the
Chiostro di S. Maria della Pace in Rome (1500-1504).
Obviously it can be used the same Order for all the levels.
Certainly there are some historical buildings, whose disposition of the Orders does not respect the rule of the overlap. Recently I noticed a building of the XVI century which breaks this rule, that is the
Palazzo Saluzzo di Corigliano in Naples where the succession of the Orders is:
Doric for the basement (ground floor and first floor),
Corinthian for the second floor,
Composite for the last floor.
Where is the
Ionic Order? If you observe carefully it can be found on the sides of each window on the second and third floor.
However from the Palazzo Saluzzo di Corigliano, unlike the other buildings which violate the rule of the overlap, we can obtain a logical sense for its disposition of the Orders, in fact if we imagine to draw a line uniting the capitals of the same Order, we note that, ascending the facade, the first is the line of the Doric Order, then the lines of the Ionic, of the Corinthian, and of the Composite (passing a Ionic line again).
Because of a matter of unity and continuity in the decorations, the Ionic Order was choiced also for adorning the windows of the last floor.
17 replies
So, a lot of us who build these types of buildings do so knowing that they aren't technically accurate (and in fact when me and my friend Shimoto build projects we always include that caveat in our description, that we are doing the best 1:1 we can within minecrafts restrictions) but the spirit is there and that it looks good in Minecraft!
As an addition to this there are many other things we can't do. For instance, the Greeks, when building the Parthenon, used optical illusion to create a look that was more appealing, but technically there are very few straight lines around the building and the pillars are all of different sizes as they move down the building. This makes the building more visually appealing and makes it appear "square and level" when in fact it is very much not, which is very easy to see if you ever get the chance to visit it in person. Additionally, most of the pillars themselves, especially in the huge temples, were tapered, again to create an illusion. And again without dramatic scaling, this is just not possible in minecraft.
So for instance, when Shimoto and I built the Temple of Artemis for our wonders of the world collection, we used the dimensions of the actual building on as close to a 1:1 scale as we could. But it's straight and level and it wouldn't have been in real life. I worked a little with it during practice, but it's just not possible to faithfully recreate the process the Greeks used and still have the building look good in minecraft, where for instance the world is flat, not round, and your blocks are limited to a meter by meter unit.
"Due to the fact that this topic is aimed to the MC Community, I will not dwell on small details and particulars beacuse it would be too complicated to be composed with blocks (unless you use a very big scale)."
So I suggest to consider these ratios, and when it is not possible to respect them, you may approximate with blocks.
I know well the Greek architecture and its elements and it is impossible to be reproduced perfectly with cubes, however it is good to know this theory in order to build in the most real way, even if you can't respect ratios.
My intent with this blog is not to give a manual for building but rather to spread knowledge.
If you like so much this topic, then (I think) you must like architecture. Maybe your intership was a terrible experience, or you were with bad people... it's a shame that you changed idea on being architect. Reflect on it
Enthusiast but not enough to spend 70h/week on Autocad, rushing to complete all the plans before the deadline. Furthermore, when I heard that (in France at least) one third of architects just earn the minimum wage... I don't think I was in the wrong studio, they had done some great things.
I overrated the job, should have known that every architect wasn't Norman Foster or Mies Van Der Rohe, making millions a year.
Oof telling my life on the Internet, sorry.
Can't say I'm not left with curiosity of what path did you decide to do once architecture didn't work out for you.
Also, this tutorial explains very well the proportions. Perhaps you can add a video tutorial of putting to practice the theory.
About my new path.. Oh god hard to say. Nothing typical for sure. I'm working to live off e-commerce activities (which I've already started), social media marketing, affiliate marketing, stock market trading, real estates, art commissions, perhaps YouTube, streaming, selling merch as well...overall building leverage income streams lol.
If I ever choose to throw everything up and follow the path I'm taking in school, well I'll just become an engineer, it's alright.
Ok no more talking about me 😅😅😂
I just don't see you yet as an investor. Although you're quite the entrepreneur. But don't find it fathomable that you have the finances for such things unless you're a genius at stocks.
Lmao, maybe add bitcoin and the deep web to your e-commerce list? xD