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Administrative building in Zaryadye (8 Stalin skyscraper of Moscow)

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avatar Koronos_Windzor
Level 42 : Master Architect
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Administrative building in Zaryadye (the"eighth sister") — unrealized project of a high-rise building in Zaryadye, Moscow, laid the last of the Stalin skyscrapers in the day, the 800 anniversary of the capital. Design building height is 275 meters. The construction of high-rise buildings began in 1947, and by 1953, his stylobate was almost complete. The skyscraper was completed in connection with the death of Joseph Stalin and the change of urban policy under Nikita Khrushchev

In 1964-1967 on an existing Foundation on the project of Chechulina was built the hotel "Russia" (finally dismantled in 2008-2009), is included in the "Guinness Book of records". Its proportions allowed us to visually assess the scale of the planned facilities: the hotel is comparable to the lower volume, five-stage high-rise building

In the 1930-ies the Zaryadye district, during the XIX—XX centuries turned into slums, have undergone significant changes in the General plan of reconstruction of Moscow. In the years 1936-1937 in the area, began the demolition of the old low-rise buildings were reconstructed Moskvoretskaya embankment, and destroyed some buildings including part of the Kitay-Gorod wall

in 1940 work was begun on the preparation of the construction site, but was never completed due to the outbreak of the great Patriotic war

January 13, 1947 by the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution "On the construction in Moscow of high-rise buildings", which describes the plans for the construction of eight skyscrapers in Moscow. One of the points of the document included the construction of 26-storey administrative building in Zaryadye, "in place of the planned construction of the House of people's Commissars". The administrative building was at the visual level "support" Palace of the Soviets and unite them into a single ensemble other Moscow high-rise buildings. An ambitious project of the construction of the Palace of Soviets in place of the blown up in 1931 the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was never implemented — the materials and construction used in the construction of its base was used during the Second world war

The initiator of the construction of skyscrapers was Joseph Stalin, for this reason the building was called "Stalin skyscrapers". According to his idea, the building was dedicated to the 800 anniversary of Moscow: each of the skyscrapers symbolized a century of history of Moscow. In foreign guidebooks built high-rise called "sisters"

Tab "eight sisters" were held simultaneously in September 1947.

The structure was symmetrical and had a stepped structure. By analogy with the building of the foreign Ministry, administrative skyscraper began with five-story buildings to fit in with the surrounding low-rise buildings. The building was located diagonally relative to each other and equipped with elevators. In the lower part of the building was planned to arrange about 2000 of the working rooms and offices, destined for employees of the Department. The authors sought to make the bottom part of the building more solemn in contrast to the modest finish of the other buildings.

The high-rise part of the building was separated from the lower amount of the two intermediate layers. The first of these was to be three stories tall, and following a six — served as a transition to a high-rise tower. This design is surmounted by a gilded many-sided tent with a spire and an emblem with the symbols of the Soviet Union, were the main part of the structure. Upper floors of high-rise part was assigned by showroom with four pavilions. Radiation system of administrative buildings contributed to the organization of interior spaces, uniform distribution of wind loads and strength of relationships of structures, which increased the stability of the building.

Under the project, the main facade of the building facing red square. Through the colonnade had to be visible yard, which was the entrance to the main lobby. From Kitaygorodskogo travel was provided for the Parking lot and around building — landscaped gardens with preserved architectural monuments of Zaryadye. The building was supposed to have three entrances: the main entrance with a wide staircase went to Red square, the second was located on the side of the Moscow river, the third — in the street Razin. The lower part of the skyscraper was more extended along Moskvoretskaya embankment

The main lobby of the building included the creation of the main double-height hall, divided into three naves by rows of columns. In the aisles were arranged wardrobes 1,700 people each, and Elevator lobby served by the continuation of the middle nave. The building also was planned to organize a large meeting room, wardrobes, sideboards, and dining room in a separate building

Work on the construction of eighth and the last of the high-rise started later than the other high-rise buildings and was much slower in coming. The reasons for this was the hydrogeological conditions and the need to prepare a huge construction site. By the spring of 1953 was completed the Foundation and stylobate, and a year later construction had reached 15 storeys.

Under the stylobate was attached to a technical floor and a bunk concrete bunker, which, according to historian Nicholas kruzkov, could be used as bomb shelters. The researcher also notes that the device of the cellars was due to practical considerations: to prevent subsidence, the pressure of the high altitude on the ground it was necessary to balance the deepening of the basement slab.

In 1954 the construction of the skyscraper was halted by a government that has become a personal tragedy for Dmitry Chechulin. The attempt of the architect to change the building project based on the existing foundations were not adopted. According to historian kruzkov, the reason for termination of construction was that. did not support the campaign against architectural extravagances, initiated by the first Secretary of the CPSU, Nikita Khrushchev, radically changed the direction of urban policy in the capital. Since the mid 1950-ies, the main architectural direction was the solution of the housing problem that led to the mass construction of model housing, popularly called "Khrushchev". Under these conditions, high-rise construction has become irrelevant, erected the frame of the administrative building, was dismantled and its elements involved in the construction of other objects.

In the early 1960s, the existing ground and the base of the skyscraper decided to use for new construction, while the same was suggested about the construction in charge of the hotel. In 1964-1967 on the Foundation of high-rise building was built the hotel "Russia", the volume of which is comparable with the size of a five-story division of the previous project. On the hotel project experts worked under the leadership of Dmitry Chechulina. At the time of completion of the Rossiya was the largest hotel in the world and in the 1970-ies was included in the "Guinness Book of records"

In 2004, the Moscow authorities announced the decision to demolish the hotel due to the fact that it's old, obsolete and not fit into the image of a modern metropolis. On a place "Russia" it was planned to build a multifunctional hotel-office complex with a total area of 410 thousand square meters with underground Parking for 2,5 thousand cars. The new project involved, first, reducing the height of the hotel — up to 6 floors, and secondly, the maximum approximation to the style of surrounding buildings.

From January 1, 2006 "Russia" was closed, and in March, work began on the demolition of the building. The hotel was dismantled, not demolished. To undermine the building was impossible due to the proximity of the Kremlin. So the top five floors was dismantled with the help of tower cranes.

Demolition of the hotel Rossiya in Central Moscow, the place which was supposed to be a new hotel complex was completed in 2008, but later extended the deadline until 2009. Then came the global financial crisis.

20 Jan 2012 during the meeting of Vladimir Putin and Moscow mayor Sergei Sobyanin, it was decided that the waste land where there was a hotel "Russia", on the vacant area of 13 hectares is a Park or a green area with entertainment center. Cause, became the motivation behind this decision is called the congestion of the centre and heavy traffic in the center of Moscow, which would have further deteriorated due to the ensuing construction.

In 2014-2017, the Park was built under the name "Zaryadye". Inaugurated on 9 September 2017.
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I must to give diamond for you :)
  • Greenwindu
  • Level 52
  • Grandmaster Terraformer
  • November 26, 2017, 7:11 am
Wow! That's very fast working!
  • Greenwindu
  • Level 52
  • Grandmaster Terraformer
  • November 26, 2017, 7:01 am
Very impressive, and that Russian history is very sweet too. How long did it take you to make?
Started 3 days ago :)))

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